ance of the principles in the world beyond the psychology building and the campus where I . The study of persuasion, compliance, and change has advanced. Influence: The Psychology Of Persuasion. By Robert B. Cialdini. Content = *** Readability = *** Clarity & Structure = ***. IN A NUTSHELL. Cialdini has identified . Each category has a fundamental psychological principle behind it. Influence is organized around the six basic categories, which are.
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Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, Revised Edition [Robert B. Cialdini] on risigranoli.ga *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Influence, the classic book. PDF | Robert B. Cialdini and others published The Power of Persuasion Putting the Robert B. Cialdini is Regents' professor of psychology and distinguished. Influence, the classic book on persuasion, explains the psychology of why people say "yes"—and how to apply these understandings.
People who bet on a horse, for example, feel immediately more self-assured that their bet will pay off. Meaning: we convince ourselves we have done the right choice. The Scrounging Boyfriend Cialdini also gives us a juicy example of her neighbor Sara. Sara broke their relationship and got engaged to an ex-boyfriend. Tim called Sara before her wedding and promised he would change. Sara stopped the wedding and took Tim back. But Sara is more devoted to Tim than she ever was and says she did the right choice.
Why would they accept a huge billboard after having signed a petition which was not even connected to driving safety?
So when they were asked later to install a huge billboard to hopefully help bring down road accidents they complied to stay consistent with their newly formed self-image.
Cialdini says that this finding made him wary of signing any petition because of the potential to influence future behavior and self-image in ways he might not want. The Low-Ball The Low-Ball technique exploits the Commitment and Consistency rule by offering a very low price to get an initial commitment. Later on in the process, the seller would say there was a mistake and the price is now higher. The decision stands on so many legs that removing the price leg is not likely to change his mind.
This is the same that happened to Sara in accepting her drinking BF back. She got a great offer at the beginning and accepted it. The Chinese in their efforts to converts POWs to communism realized that we also look at our own actions to assess who we are. The Chinese would also make public what an individual had done, written or signed.
And since what those around us think is true of us influences our actions and what we think is true, POWs also had social pressure to embrace the communist ideology.
Written Statements Increase Compliance Written statements are a powerful way of spurring our sense of Commitment and Consistency. Cialdini tells us that companies employing hard sales critiques experienced high cancellation rates.
And what was their way to reduce cancellations drastically? Letting their customers write down their own orders. Now the downloaders cared less they have been pushed and cajoled into downloading and focused more on their own commitment. And of course, the effort they had put into writing it also added a bit of sunk costs to the interaction.
Effort Increases Commitment People who spend a lot of effort to obtain something tend to value it more highly than if it had been very easy to obtain it. Indeed tribes with the most dramatic initiation ceremonies also tended to have the highest group solidarity.
Similarly, you are usually well served in giving small or no incentive for the behavior you want to encourage. People who had no major incentive feel like they chose and will accept more responsibility. Commitment Makes Us Take More Risks An experiment in a beach showed the power of Commitment and Consistency even with the possibility of personal harm.
Researcher 1 left his radio near to take a stroll and a Researcher 2 stole it pretending it to be a thief. Only 4 out of 20 people it was tried on to stop him.
Consistency is another way to reduce complexity and mental load by offering a shortcut. Inconsistency instead raises our mental load and is commonly thought to be an undesirable trait.
He recounts a brilliantly funny story of a woman in a short skirt who employed the Commitment and Consistency tactic on him.
At the end when the woman told him she had the perfect card to save him money he had no place to hide: he admitted and committed to his answers, now he had to stay consistent to save face.
Cialdini says that if the same were to happen today he would tell her she was chosen for the job for her physical attractiveness, that men would exaggerate to prove what great swingers they are and that he would not download her club membership.
Cialdini says that the split of a second before our rational mind takes over we will get the real feeling about our choice. Control your behavior: it determines who you are 4. Social Proof But they work. Canned laughter makes us laugh longer and harder. The difference is especially great with poor quality jokes.
Cialdini says it works because we get the feeling other people like it. Pluralistic Ignorance and Letting People Die Cialdini draws attention to a highly publicized instance in which a woman was let die without help in spite many had heard her screaming. This phenomenon is called Pluralistic Ignorance. Similar experiments have been repeated with similar results. When jaywalking we are more likely to follow up people similarly dressed to us for example And it works in nefarious ways too: homicide rates have a strong copycat effect.
In highly publicized fight matches when a black fighter lost black homicide victims rose. When it was a white fighter who lost the homicide victims increased for white men.
Liking We prefer to say yes to the requests of someone we like. Cialdini talks about the now in famous Tupperware parties as an example. And he and says that referrals are a way of exploiting the Liking principle.
These are the principles that make us like someone: Physical Attractiveness We assign to good looking individuals characteristics such as talent, kindness, honesty, and intelligence.
Attractive people are voted more, receive more money in compensations, get hired more, and are twice as likely to avoid prison sentences.
And, interestingly enough, most people are little nor aware at all their decisions have been swayed by physical attractiveness. Similarity Influences People We like people who are similar to us. People who have similar background and interests, but also similar names. We need to be careful when we feel a bit too close to a salesperson because many sales programs teach to mirror and underline similarities.
Praise Influences People We love flattery and albeit we might know the flatterer has second motives we tend to believe praise anyway and we tend to like those who provide them even when the praise is false. We do are also associated with the crowd we hang out with and people do assume we have the same personality traits as our friends.
Advertisers using models for their cars want to associate beauty and desirability with their cars.
And it often does work. Young men looking at cars with a model nearby rated it as faster, more appealing and more expensive than the same ad without model. Similar is the case of linking celebrities to products. Razran presented several political statements while and while not eating. Only the ones shown during eating gained approval. Association and Sportsfan Cialdini explains the phenomenon of sports-fan via the association principle.
We associate to a sports club and then want them to win to prove our own superiority. People feel their success will somehow raise their own social prestige. It is widely acknowledged that the reason people kept going is that the authority figure kept insisting. A typical authority figure is a doctor. A right ear infection, to be precise. The note said to administer the ear drops in abbreviate form. This is how the Scarcity Principle works on our mind.
This principle makes things costly which have high demand and low supply in the market. Similarly, rare antique items become more valuable because of this principle.
Marketers take advantage of this principle by advertising the product they are selling as limited in stock. We pay more attention to such advertisements because we think if we are not downloading the product right now then we will lose them because we will not be getting the chance to download them in the future due to its scarcity.
Why Scarcity Principle works? The scarcity principle works because of the human nature of loving freedom and hating restrictions.
At this stage, a child does exactly opposite of what is being asked him to do. By opposing his parents he enjoys the freedom of doing whatever he wishes and escapes from the captive feeling of being in control of his parents.
Similarly, the limited period offers made by marketers to us, make us feel that we are restricted and we do not have the freedom to download their products later, so we cope with such violation of our freedom by downloading the product right then. How teenagers react when their choices are made limited can be understood by observing teen couples. When couples in teenage face parental interference in their love life, their love for each other becomes even stronger.
They fight against the scarcity of choices being imposed by their parents to prove their freedom. Although fictitious, Romeo and Juliet are a perfect example of rebellious teenage love. At every age, humans have the tendency to seek what is scarce and then justify why they are seeking them. People also came with different justifications to prove their beliefs to be genuine. It says revolts are more likely to occur in a country where freedom is taken back from the people.
The countries in which no freedom is ever given to its people do not pose much threat of revolts. In a nutshell- People want to do what they cannot do. They hate the restrictions which scarcity brings to them. Marketers use this tendency for their profit by making people do what marketers want them to do. So always remember this theory of Scarcity before downloading from a limited period offer.
Chapter 3 Reciprocation When someone does a favor to you, you feel indebted and try to repay the complete debt as soon as possible. The principle of reciprocation is pervasive. It is found in each and every society of the world. When our friends present us gifts on our birthday, we try to gift something equally valued to them on their birthdays.
We are taught to reciprocate from our childhood.
We despise people who do not follow this unwritten law. Many experiments have been conducted to prove this principle. Below are some of them. In reality, one of the two subjects was the assistant of the experimenter. During the short break, in one case the assistant goes out for a while and brings a Coca-Cola for the subject. In another case, the assistant returns empty-handed. In both the cases, after the rating procedure was complete, the assistant tries to sell some raffle tickets to the subject.
The success rate of selling the tickets was twice in the case in which the assistant did the favor of bringing coca-cola to the subject. The subject gets influenced by the favor and reciprocated by downloading the tickets. Why does the principle work?